An EOS Block Producer is the authority and curator of the EOS network. Within the DPoS system, Block Producers run the underlying network layer to process all transactions on EOS. There will be a total of 21 block producers along with another 100 Back-up nodes overlooking the activities of the 21. “Healthy” candidates for the Block Producing role on the EOS network must fulfill a list of criteria and attributes in order to be considered for a vote.
The activities performed by Block Producers should be covered by EOS as each BP runs the producer plugin. The software, DPoS, is the system that EOS will operate on. Block Producers replace the concept of “miners” as the custodians of the network, running the underlying network layer to process all transactions.
For DPoS, there is no expensive, wasteful proof of work that is paid for through inflation and new coin release such as Bitcoin and Ethereum (currently). On EOS, Block Producers service the community and the network. BPs must implement arbitration decisions when instructed and make the hard investments to scale as required. Block Producers also act as CEOs in a traditional company as they must keep everything internal and in control. They must also communicate with other BPs and can also campaign to get elected as a BP.